In hadith 23 of an-nawawi‘s collection- on the authority of Abu Malik al Harith ibn Asim al-Ashari(radiyallahu anha) said: “the messenger of Allah(SAW) said: purity is half of faith. Alhamdulillhah fills the scale..”
In Suratul Baqarah verse 143, Allah equated Iman and Solah. When Allah was referring to Iman, he used Solah. The key to Solah is Wudu and wudu is a form of tahara. Without wudu there is no Solah. The moment wudu has been made, half of Solah is complete. Iman is Solah, half of solah is wudu, and wudu if tahara. Automatically, tahara is half of iman. Every muslim must always be in a state of tahara. Solah can never be accepted if a muslim is not in a state of purification.
At-tahara means cleanliness and purification in the concept of Islam. There are some concepts that guide the state of cleanliness in Islam. The several types of tahara are:
Ghusl is otherwise known as ritual bath. This is a purification that is done when a muslim has to cleanse a major impurity according to the scale of impurity in Islam. Ghusl is the highest form of At-tahara. The impurities to the cleansed by ghusl are listed below:
Ghusl Janabah- this is made after having lawful sexual intercourse with one’s spouse or after the release of semen or any fluid from the genitals. It does not matter whether the fluid was ejaculated. Whether there is engagement in sexual intercourse or not, ejaculation can take place. The ghusl has to be performed.
Ghusl Janazah- this is observed on a dead person.
Ghusl Istihadah- this is observed after a woman’s menstrual period is taking longer than the usual. Ghusl Istihadah is to be observed the same way as ghusl haydah. It is just the intention that changes.
Ghusl Haydah- this is observed after a woman has completed the normal menstrual cycle.
Ghusl Nifaas- this is observed after child birth. When a woman gives birth to a baby, before she starts to pray she has to observe ghusl nifaas.
Ghusl Nifaas-Maulud- this ghusl is to be observed on the child that is given birth to.
Ghusl Dukhulul-Islam- this ghusl is to be observed on a revert to Islam. A revert is someone who is just coming into the fold of Islam.
Ghusl Eid(the special ghusl)- this ghusl is to be observed on the three festivals(eid) in Islam which are;
-Ghuslul Jumuah:to be observed before Friday prayers.
-Ghuslul Eidul-Adha: to be observed before eidul-adha prayers.
-Ghuslul Eidul-Fitr: to be observed before eidul-fitr prayers.
This is the purification that is performed before any act of worship. It must be performed before Solah. Wudu is purification with water. Just like wudu, we have tayammum. This is to be performed in cases when there is zero access to water. It is purification with the earth.
This is purification of the private part with water after using the toilet.
This is the purification of the private part with solid materials when there is zero access to water. Materials that can be used as are paper, dry leaves, smooth stone etc. It is prohibited to use animal dung, bones and fresh leaves..