TAWHEED: ISLAMIC PRINCIPLES OF ALLAH ONENESS AND UNIQUENESS
BY OYEWUNMI KAFAYAT OLASEYI
Tawheed: توحيد, meaning “unification or oneness of Allah. Tawheed is the most important component of the Muslim submission oath. The statement of belief in God’s oneness is the first element of the shahada (Islamic declaration of religion). Attributing divinity to something or anybody else is shirk, according to the Qur’an, an unforgivable transgression if repentance is not sought later. Muslims believe that the idea of Tawheed underpins all of the Islamic teachings.
From an Islamic perspective, the core of Islamic beliefs (Aqidah) is uncompromising monotheism, which distinguishes Islam from other religions. Furthermore, Tawheed demands Muslims to refrain from not just worshipping several gods, but also from pursuing wealth, social prestige, or egoism.
Islam is an Arabic word derived from the words ‘Salm’, which means peace, and ‘Silm,’ which signifies surrendering one’s will to Allah. Islam adheres to ‘Tawheed,’ which encompasses not only monotheism (belief in a single God), but also much more. Tawheed is derived from the Arabic verb ‘Wahhada,’ which means to unite, unify, or consolidate, and means “unification.” Tawheed can be classified into three groups.
(i) Ar-Ruboobeeyah Tawheed (maintaining the unity of Lordship).
(ii) Tawheed al-Asmaa-was-sifaat (keeping Allah’s name and qualities together).
(iii) Ibaadah Tawheed (maintaining the unity of worship).
Monotheism (Tauheed or Tawheed), or believing in only one Allah, is a powerful Islamic faith and basis upon which the entire structure of Islam is built. All Prophets have urged their followers to embrace True Faith. Worship is Allah’s sole prerogative and is owed to Him alone. Monotheism is such an important aspect of faith that the Prophet (S.A.W) spent the majority of His thirteen years teaching in Makkah focusing on Tauheed (Allah’s Oneness) and encouraging people to practice Tawheed by denying any partners to Allah. The concept of monotheism is prevalent throughout the Holy Quran, with Monotheism being mentioned in the majority of verses in the Holy Quran.
To emphasize the complexity of Allah’s unity and Almighty character, the Qur’an employs 99 words known as “Beautiful Names of Allah” (Q,7:180). All of creation’s tiers are projected down to the physical level via divine names, which project divine attributes. Apart from the supreme name “Allah” and the neologism Ar-Rahman (referring to the divine beneficence that creates and maintains the universe), and a few other specific names, such as Al-Maalik Al-Mulook (“King of Kings”) in an authentic Muhammad narration.
The latter, according to Islamic teachings, is designed to serve as a reminder of God’s immanence rather than a symbol of divinity or a limitation on God’s transcendent essence. Shirk, or the attribution of divinity to a created being, is considered a denial of God’s truth and hence a serious sin.
They are many verses in the Holy Quran that explain the oneness and uniqueness of Allah and all the Prophet of Allah also passes the messages to their people about the oneness of Allah. Some of the verses are listed below:
And I (Allah) created not the jinn and mankind except that they should worship Me (Alone).” [Q, 51:56].
And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him…” [Q,17:23]
Say (O Muhammad P.B.U.H): “Come, I will recite what your Lord has prohibited you from Join, not anything in worship with Him….” [Q,6:151]
Every Muslim in His Five Prayers confirms this Belief:
“You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help (for each and everything)” [Q,1:5]
“Some of the verses that mention Monotheism are:
“That is Allah, your Lord, there is no god but He, the Creator of all things. Then worship Him, and He has the power to dispose of all affairs” [Q, 6:102]
“And they say: “There is nothing but our life of this world, we die and we live and nothing destroys us except Ad-Dahr (time). And they have no knowledge of it: they only conjecture.” [Q, 45:24]
“And they rejected those signs in iniquity and arrogance, though their souls were convinced thereof…” [Q,27:14]
“There is no compulsion in religion. Verily, the Right Path has become distinct from the wrong path. Whoever disbelieves in Taught and believes in Allah, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that will never break. And Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.” [Q,2:256]
“Then anyone who violates his oath does so to the harm of his own soul. And anyone who fulfils what has been covenanted to Allah; Allah will soon grant his A great reward” [Q 48:10]
“And I have followed the religion of my fathers, – Ibrahim, Ishaq and Ya‘qub ( [A.S], and never could we attribute any partners whatsoever to Allah. This is from the Grace of Allah to us and to mankind, but most men thank not (i.e., they neither believe in Allah nor worship Him).” [Q 12:38]
“And they said: “If it had been the Will of the Most Gracious (Allah), we should not have worshipped them (false deities).” They have no knowledge whatsoever of that. They do nothing but lie!” [Q,43:20]
“And We did not send any Messenger before you (O Muhammad (S.A.W) but We revealed to him (saying): Lâ ilâha illa Ana [none has the right to be worshipped but I (Allah)], so worship Me (Alone and none else).” [Q,21:25]
“And ask (O Muhammad (S.A.W) those of Our Messengers whom We sent before you: “Did We ever appoint gods to be worshipped besides the Most Gracious (Allah)?”” [Q,43:45]
“Surely the religion (i.e., the worship and the obedience) is for Allah only. And those who take protectors (helpers, lords, gods) besides Him (say): “We worship them only that they may bring us near to Allah.” Verily Allah will judge between them concerning that wherein they differ. Truly, Allah guides, not him who is a liar, and a disbeliever.” [Q 39:3]
“Who is he, that can intercede with Him except with His Permission? [Q,2:255]
And there are many angels in the heavens, whose intercession will avail nothing except after Allah has given leave for whom He wills and is pleased with” [Q,53:26]